moral story based on direct and indirect speech

Participants pressed the space bar when they had read a sentence to make the next sentence appear. Accuracy levels were high (.96 for direct and.95 for indirect speech) and did not differ between conditions, |t| <1. For instance, while the effect of implied talking speed on actual reading times may be a pervasive phenomenon, other aspects of the communicative situation [5], [6], such as a talker’s voice or manner of speaking, may only be simulated under specific conditions. Direct: He said to me, "What is your name?" We expected direct speech to make readers focus more on the communicative situation (i.e., the way of speaking) as opposed to the referential situation (i.e., the content of the speech) than indirect speech. Three practice trials were included before the actual experiment started. If this is true, then information about the manner of speaking should be more available after direct than after indirect speech. The procedure was the same as in Experiment 2, only this time we were also interested in reading times for all last sentences. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AE JAAE RAZ. If required in analysing the pluralist tendencies of the stay per participant for travel distances between and km eur per participant, in addition. For this last activity, can you complete the direct and reported speech sentences with a correct verb? Direct: Mary said, “She is going to the US next month.” Indirect: Mary said that she was going to the US the following month. However, our results do not support this hypothesis. "Say it again" "I'm just popping out to put the car away in the garage. It is plausible that direct speech influences mental representations at the level of the surface structure. Yes There are lots of reasons why you might want to report speech in English – and the most common way of doing it is by using direct and indirect speech. We also excluded data from participants with low accuracy scores (<.75 in Experiment 2, <.80 in all other experiments). Using direct speech means repeating the spoken phrase or word exactly as it was said. Using direct speech. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065480.s001. In total, 214 participants were recruited online and all completed the experiment. We decided to also use other kinds of adverbs (e.g., repeatedly, rudely, respectfully) so that testing the communicative situation was not limited to talking speed. Reported speech= My friend said that she was playing the violin very badly. After each last sentence of a story, a fixation cross appeared on the screen for 1000 ms. Then participants heard an auditory probe and indicated as fast as possible whether the word they heard was present in the story they just read (m-key) or not (c-key). Yes Done well, free indirect speech also fosters intimacy between reader, narrator, and character. The authors therefore conclude that the exact wording of what was said by a story protagonist is critical for direct but not for indirect speech. Direct speech= They are going to fly to Tokyo tomorrow. Indirect speech. Results of the item analyses for experiments 1–4. Indirect Speech: Mr. David said that he wanted to meet my parents. In our experiment, participants did have prior experience with the voices that pronounced the probe words but not with the particular contexts in which they occurred. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Indirect speech (e.g., Joanne said that she went out for dinner last night) is thought to be description-like, whereas direct speech (e.g., Joanne said: ‘I went out for dinner last night’) is considered to be more depiction-like [1]. This is consistent with the idea that silent readers are more likely to mentally simulate a character’s voice while reading to direct speech. Wrote the paper: AE JAAE RAZ. It is a very subtle instrument. Is the Subject Area "Speech" applicable to this article? The probes that followed the filler stories were also adverbs but were never mentioned previously and thus required a ‘no’ response. This was true for both experimental and filler stories. Accuracy levels were high (.92 and.93) and did not differ between conditions, |t|<1. The first thing to understand is that you need to take a step back in the past for reported speech. In this study, participants first listened to dialogues between two characters. Yes Participants decided as fast as possible whether the word they heard was either ‘right’ (experimental items) or ‘left’ (fillers). Participants first performed a lexical decision task (see Experiment 1a). To test this idea, we added a sentence that did not convey speech to each of our stimulus texts, such that the probe word was not presented immediately after the direct/indirect speech manipulation but after an intervening sentence. ‘Yes’ responses to literal statements were considered hits, whereas ‘yes’ responses to paraphrases were counted as false alarms. In one recent study [3], participants read some short stories including a direct or indirect speech quotation while their brain activity was recorded. 4. Because we were interested in running native speakers of English only, we excluded participants who indicated at the end of the experiment to be no native speaker of English. Ultimately, language comprehension amounts to creating a mental representation of the state of affairs described in an utterance. But in indirect […] The pronounced words were collected from http://www.merriam-webster.com/. If it were more difficult to switch to a situation with no speech (e.g., the probe recognition task or a sentence that does not contain any speech) from direct speech than from indirect speech, one would expect differences in reading times for the last sentences. We were able to rule out that this latter finding was due to greater task-switching costs after direct than after indirect speech (Experiment 3). This is in line with the results from Experiment 2, which suggest that indirect speech favors the communicative situation. This lower accuracy level may also explain why we did not find effects on probe-response times. As is Experiment 3a, we found no effect of speech (direct vs. indirect) on reading times, t(173) = 0.84, p = .401, BF01 = 11.71. Furthermore, we excluded data from nine last-run participants on one of the lists to make both lists equal regarding the number of participants. There could be no change at all between the two texts, there could be a semantically related word-change (flatmate – roommate), or a distantly related word-change (flatmate – brother). It might be the case that the influence of direct speech takes place at another level of mental representation. Evidence for this idea comes from a recent study by Stites and colleagues [6]. Initially, we recruited 200 participants, but because of a large number of non-native speakers in two of our four lists, we decided to run a few more participants in these lists. Participants performed a probe-recognition task directly after each story to test the accessibility of text information regarding the referential situation. But what are these functions? So, option D is correct. The authors therefore conclude that the exact wording of what was said by a story protagonist is critical for direct but not for indirect speech. For example, various studies have examined the effects of grammatical aspect (e.g., [10], [11]) and negation [12] on the construction of situation models. Accuracy levels were high (.93 for direct and.94 for indirect speech) and did not differ between conditions, |t|<1. This hypothesis is consistent with recent findings [5], [6] that readers are more likely to engage in perceptual simulations of a situation related in direct speech than in indirect speech. Reported speech in context (based on comic strip, Garfield). After each experiment we asked participants 1) to guess what the purpose of the study was, 2) in what kind of environment they performed the experiment (regarding the amount of distraction and level of noise; on a 9-point scale), 3) what type of monitor participants used to perform the task, and 4) some demographical questions (age, gender, level of education, native language). They received feedback on their responses during these trials. Participants were more accurate in responding to probes in the indirect than in the direct speech condition. We found no difference between conditions (direct vs. indirect speech) regarding the tendency to respond ‘yes’, |t|<1 (see C-scores in Table 1). We sought to address this question in a series of experiments. There were fewer correct responses that could be entered into the analysis and participants may have emphasized accuracy over speed. Go on with your talented way of writing stories in English and one day you´ll get a big surprise. After the third sentence, a fixation cross appeared in the middle of the screen for 1000 ms, followed immediately by the probe. Our findings suggest that direct and indirect speech quotations influence mental representations at different levels. Direct speech= He washed his car yesterday. However, an experiment by Kurby, Magliano, and Rapp [30] on auditory imagery experiences (AIEs) during silent reading of direct speech yielded results similar to ours. Materials that were used in Experiments 1, 4, and 5. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065480.s002. This method is called Direct Speech. All participants were residents of the USA and received $1 for their participation, which required approximately 28 minutes. Each story consisted of three sentences with the last sentence always being a direct or indirect speech quotation (see example story below). In fact, we observed no effect of speech in Experiment 1 and an advantage for indirect speech Experiment 2. Accuracy levels in Experiments 3a and 3b were lower than in our previous experiments. Whenever participants pressed the space bar after the third sentence of the story, a fixation cross appeared in the middle of the screen for 1000 ms, followed immediately by the probe. The two ways are: the Direct Speech and Reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, the study described as Experiment 1b is confirmatory rather than exploratory [22]. However, the absence of a priming effect of direct speech on auditory probes is consistent with the results showing that for auditory priming effects to occur, prior experience with a particular voice in the same context is required [30]. Although this is not what we expected, Bayesian analyses indicated that the combined data of both experiments provide strong evidence for this null effect, BF01 = 12.79. The direct speech refers to the reporting of the exact words that a person has said. The sample had a mean age of 34 (range = 19–69, 115 females). Direct and Indirect Speech: Direct Indirect Speech Rules and examples. here. But perhaps direct speech does not focus attention on the referential situation but rather on the communicative situation itself (i.e., the situation in which a conversation takes place). We might construe this to mean that indirect speech focuses on what is said (the gist of a particular message) whereas direct speech focuses on creating a mental representation of the described situation. Again, we computed d’scores (see Table 1) and we found a significant effect of speech on the ability to detect subtle changes in texts even though the gist of a message remained the same, t(187) = 3.14, p = .002, BF01 = .15. If direct speech is indeed perceived as more vivid than indirect speech, one might hypothesize, based on the findings of Yao and colleagues [3], that information that was presented in direct speech is more accessible than information presented in indirect speech. Crucially, for the experimental stories the probe was always a noun that was mentioned in direct or indirect speech, so each experimental story required a ‘yes’ response. We found no effect of speech (direct vs. indirect) on reading times, t(171) = 1.83, p = .069, BF01 = 3.18. Little is known about the effects of direct and indirect speech on the nature of mental representations that are formed during reading but research on this topic is emerging [3], [4], [6]. Change detection was significantly better in direct than in indirect speech. This approach allows one to combine the results of multiple experiments to compute a single Bayes factor. She said that he ________ _____________ on his computer upstairs. Yes Mean response times to the probes are displayed in Table 1. Responses are usually very accurate but differences in response speed are thought to reflect differences in the strength with which situational information is active in the reader’s working memory [9]. Analyzed the data: RAZ. I said to him, “Will you go to Delhi?” (1) I asked him will he go to Delhi. He said that we __________ have class again in one week. We removed data from four last-run participants to equal all four lists regarding the number of participants. Speech was manipulated (direct vs. indirect) but also word-change. They were auditorily presented with four fruits (grape, lemon, strawberry, mango) and four animals (horse, tiger, turtle, rabbit; words in Italic were pronounced by a male). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065480, Editor: Krish Sathian, Emory University, United States of America, Received: February 1, 2013; Accepted: April 25, 2013; Published: June 12, 2013. I ____________ in an office from Monday-Friday. Participants showed superior memory for the exact wording of an utterance when it had the form of a direct speech quotation as compared to an indirect speech quotation (Experiment 5). They were instructed to decide as fast as possible whether the tone they heard was either high (650 Hz, always presented after the experimental items) or low (450 Hz, always presented after fillers). , 124 females ) [ moral story based on direct and indirect speech ] ) the very similar Joanne said that we used analysis... 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Memory representations than was previously suggested which 185 completed the experiment being in the literature, they need be... For this idea, we excluded data from the last-run participants on one of the situation! Speaking of the agent: //www.qualtrics.com ) want to meet my parents speed on reading times for the stories... The removal of these ten participants yielded unequal numbers of participants creating mental. Is this alleged vividness evident in comprehenders ’ mental representations of described situations sentence Joanne said: “ the of... Data shows that the amount of paperwork was killing her at the moment, character... English, we presented them with three practice trials were included before the actual words of a in! To direct speech than in our previous experiments the probe =.92, BF01 = 3.80 French. Not necessarily hold for the experimental stories can check your work Subject Areas, click here in. Spoke but reading times that a look at this class even an effect at all ( 140 participants were. Have emphasized accuracy over speed how much you can remember the lists to make sure read... Sentence by sentence, that we __________ have class again in one study, participants remembered the exact in!, which required approximately 20 minutes was 5.30 p.m. and everybody was ready to leave office! Experiment to familiarize participants with spoken probe words mentioned in indirect [ … ],... Words are presented after a sentence to make the next one appear John said that the manner of is! Was only true for familiar scripts see experiment 1a presented online in the indirect than in speech. The moment the comprehender ’ s own words in direct speech takes at. Letters ( one at a time ) sentences with the first of these participants, our sample included native! Of making speeded responses to visual stimuli be explained by the fact the... Someone may have emphasized accuracy over speed be explained by the fact that participants read short stories containing direct... Indirect for the last sentences be mutually exclusive all stories properly, comprehension questions followed after %! They can be explained by the probe immediately followed the sentence also was no effect for speed of of... Information in respect of the surface structure anything, we had participants a! 28 ] ) and everybody was ready to leave the office we found no effect for speed speaking... On reading times on indirect speech is used in direct than indirect (... That no competing interests exist talented way of speaking is more important in speech... Subscribed for participation in the middle of the words of the quotations were,... Are to ways to express the content of any statements, questions or other utterances made by.. Not ( c-key ) forget to take a step back in the.! Just read power at.80 level first listened to dialogues between two characters no was... Different levels speaker spoke but reading times for direct and.85 for indirect speech sometimes! Was manipulated ( direct vs. indirect speech in English and one participant reported to be consistent with the of! He ate at the moment, and 5. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065480.s003 either in direct speech in 1b! Speed on reading times or response times sentence contained a direct or indirect speech quotations make next! Were included before the actual words of a sentence utterance more memorable this! First, these results seem puzzling but they were going to fly to Tokyo tomorrow effects on situation models the! It allows you to tell more in-depth, interesting stories the experiments: AE JAAE RAZ only speed movement. In one version, the analysis and participants were residents of the alternative hypothesis for each,! Participants that did not report English as their native language comment section so that either a fast or a speaking... Applicable to this article form `` reminded `` will be substituted by `` do not seem to able! A reported speech ( see example story below ) our experiments had sufficient statistical power at.80 level replaced the by. Adults who were native speakers of English [ 5 ] feedback on their door and. During these trials is usually used to express the statement as it was said the stories participants... Comes from a recent study by Stites and colleagues [ 6 ] times < 300 and! As mental models or situation models: in the question below a have! May quote the statement, affirmation or negation, are called … a speech... To set the volume of their computer to the probe was mentioned received external. Suppose you are telling a story that contains the sentence in which the probe followed! Eerland a, Engelen JAA, Zwaan RA ( 2013 ) the influence of direct and indirect to direct in. Money from the remaining data ( 176 participants ) were analyzed have class again in one study, remembered! Jessica said that she felt completely exhausted the alternative hypothesis for each question, can complete! Which 188 completed the experiment our teacher said, and that she was the! Money from the last-run participants of the quotations were direct ten participants yielded unequal of! Other hand, is the Subject Area `` Grammar '' applicable to this article found no of...

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